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Spanish, Hebrew Loanwords in

(2,641 words)

Author(s): Bunis, David M.
The Jewish communities of medieval Spain were among the most productive and influential in Europe. Documents preserved from those communities demonstrate that Iberian Jews employed numerous Hebraisms in their Ibero-Romance vernaculars, at least in writing. Among their descendants, the written as well as oral use of Hebraisms is widely documented in the Judezmo (Judeo-Spanish) of the Ottoman Empire and Ḥaketía of North Africa into the modern era. And yet, unlike the Hebraisms employed in the lang…

Judeo-Spanish (Judezmo), Hebrew Component in

(4,459 words)

Author(s): Bunis, David M.
In medieval Iberia the Jews used Hebrew, and to a lesser degree Aramaic, as their primary languages of liturgy, high-le…

Turkish Influence on Hebrew in the Ottoman Empire

(922 words)

Author(s): Bunis, David M.
At the end of the 15th century, one way in which the Sephardim who arrived in the Ottoman Empire after the expulsions from Iberia began to acclimate themselves in their new home was by acquiring some familiarity with Turkish—the official language of the Ottoman administration and that of the empire’s Turkish Muslim population, as well as the principal lingua franca enabling communication between members of the empire’s linguistically diverse minorities. From the rabbinical responsa in Hebrew as …

Diglossia: Medieval and Modern Hebrew

(1,632 words)

Author(s): Bunis, David M.
In both the Middle Ages and the modern era, varieties of Hebrew existed in states of diglossia (Ferguson 1959) with other varieties of Hebrew, as well as in states of ‘out-diglossia’ (Kloss 1966) or ‘extended diglossia’ (Fishman 1967) with Jewish Diaspora languages. 1. Biblical and Other Varieties of Hebrew Throughout medieval and modern Jewish history, the text of the Bible was read and studied in synagogues and study halls. The Torah in particular was chanted in each community according to its interpretation of the Masoretic טעמים ṭeʿamim ‘accents’, which were included in medieval manuscripts and then in printed editions of the Hebrew Bible. In religious contexts (e.g., in the prayer book), the distinctive morphology, syntax, and lexicon of Biblical Hebrew stand in opposition to post-biblical Hebrew varieties. The latter include (a) Mishnaic Hebrew (e.g., in פרקי אבות pirqe ʾavot ‘Ethi…

Ladino

(2,967 words)

Author(s): Bunis, David M.
Jüdische Sprache, die sich im mittelalterlichen Spanien durch Kontakt zwischen Juden, iberoromanischen Spaniern und arabischsprachigen Mauren entwickelte ( Sepharad). Nach der Vertreibung der Juden von der Iberischen Halbinsel 1492 verbreitete sich ihre Sprache im Osmanischen Reich, in den Ländern Nordafrikas u…

Ladino

(2,930 words)

Author(s): Bunis, David M.
A Jewish language that developed in medieval Spain as a result of contact between Jews, Ibero-Romance-speaking Spaniards, and Arabic-speaking Moors (Sepharad). After the expulsion of the Jews from the Iberian Peninsula in 1492, their language spread to the Ottoman Empire, North-African and other Islamic lands, and to parts of Europe. As a result of internal developments and the influence of languages native to these new settlement areas, it became markedly different from its Spanish origin. 1. Names for the languageWith the diffusion of the Jews outside of Spain, their Ibero-Romance dialect was given various names. In Hebrew texts it was called  la ʾ az, which originally means “foreign language.” The names it used to refer to itself in the century after the expulsion from Spain were: laḏino (from Lat. latinus) and románse (from Lat. romanice), which refers to the ”Romanic” or Roman origin of the Spanish majority component of the language; (e)spanyól/(i)shpanyól, a term that equ…
Date: 2019-12-16