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Neuri

(90 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Νεῦροι/ Neûroi). Tribe (not of the Scythae) on the Hypanis [1], to the west of the Borysthenes and south of the source lake of the Tyras (Hdt. 4,17); easterly neighbours of the Androphagi and Melanchlaeni (Hdt. 4,17; 51; 100; 125). Various attempts have been made to associate them with cultures of southern Belrus, including the ancestor tribes of the Slavs, Balts or Finns. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography A.I. Terenožkin, Predskifskij period na Dneprovskom Pravoberež'e, 1961, 234  E.A. Mel'nikovskaja, Plemena južnoj Belorusij v rannem ž…

Zesutera

(47 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] Way station for swapping horses ( mutatio) on the Via Egnatia on the border between the late-antique provinces of Europa in the east and Rhodope in the west, 12 miles to the west of Aprus (It. Burdig. 602,1); not located. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)

Tisia

(265 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] ( Tiza, Pathissus, Parthiscus; Τίσσος/ Tíssos, Τήσα/ Tḗsa, Τίτζα/ Títza; modern Tisza). The largest tributary of the Danube (Ister [1]), flowing from the Carpathians to the west of Singidunum and into the Danube from the north (cf. also Pathissus); original name probably Parthisus (Str. 7,5,2). Herodotus (4,100) and Strabo (7,3,4) identify the lower reaches of the T. with the Maris (modern Maros). The T. plain (modern Bánság) was fertile and densely settled: Agathyrsi (Hdt. 4,78), Daci, Bo…

Xanthea

(95 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Ξάνθεια; Xántheia). City in Thrace between the Bistonis limne (modern Lake Vistonida) and Maronea [1] on the northern coast of the Aigaion Pelagos (Str. 7a,1,44) on the southern slopes of Rhodope, not precisely locatable. In the Byzantine city of the same name no remains suggesting Antiquity have been discovered; it was on the Via Egnatia (Nikephoros Gregoras 727,24; 814,19); modern Xanthi. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography S. P. Kyriakidis, Περὶ τὴν ἱστορίαν τῆς Θρᾴκης, 1960, 27-32  P. A. Pantos, Ἱστορικὴ τοπογραφία τοῦ νομοῦ Ξάνθης…

Bistones

(95 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Βίστονες; Bístones). Thracian tribe on the Aegean Sea from around the Βιστονὶς λίμνη ( Bistonìs límnē) to the lower reaches of the Nestus; neighbours of the Cicones and the Sapaei. On their territory,  Abdera,  Dicaea and Stryme were founded. Hdt. (7,110) only mentioned as an intermediate staging post of the Persian army They appear frequently in mythological tales and in genealogies (Str. 7 fr. (43) 44 mentions B. on Thasos, under the rule of Diomedes; Val. Fl. 3,159: homeland of Orpheus). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography A. Fol, T. Spiridonov,…

Naulochus

(127 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Ναύλοχος/ Naúlochos). Small port on the western shore of the Black Sea (Pontos Euxeinos) beneath the southern slopes of the Haemus mountains, north of Mesambria [1], from where N. was probably founded at the turn of the 4th/3rd cents BC (Str. 7,6,1; 9,5,19; cf. also Plin. HN 4,45), modern Obzor. Mentioned as a port (ὅρμος ναυσί/ hórmos nausí), but without giving its name, in Arrian Peripl. p. eux. 36 and Anon. Peripl. m. eux. 81. The mansio on the Mesambria - Philippopolis road was called Templum Iovis in the Roman period (Tab. Peut. 8,4), and Kozeakos i…

Corpili

(94 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Κορπῖλοι; Korpîloi). Thracian tribe east of the lower course of the  Hebrus (Str. 7a,1,48). The Thracian strategia of Corpilice (Ptol. 3,6,9) also extended over the earlier territory of the  Apsinthii as far as  Aenus [1] (Str. 7a,1,58). In 188 BC the C. took part in the uprising against the troops of Cn. Manlius Vulso together with the Caeni and Maduateni (Liv. 38,40,7). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography Chr. Danov, Die Thraker auf dem Ostbalkan. ..., in: ANRW II 7.1, 1979, 21-185, esp. 84f. M. Tačeva, Istorija na bălgarskite zemi 2, 1987, 58ff.

Ganus

(103 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Γάνος; Gános). A mountain above modern Gaziköy on the European Propontis coast, modern Ganos Dağı (945 m). Its region was Ganiás (Γανιάς) with the local deity theà Ganḗa (θεὰ Γανήα). A fortified settlement was located below the mountain tò Gános (τὸ Γάνος, Scyl. 67). In the 5th cent. BC, G. was part of the Thynian tribal territory under Seuthes II, who promised  Bisanthe, G. and Neon Teichos to Xenophon (400-399 BC., Xen. An. 7,5,8). G. is also mentioned in association with the advance of Philip II into Propontis against Kersebleptes (346 BC, Aeschin. In Ctes. 3,82). von…

Symbolum

(60 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] Thracian coastal mountain range, today also Simbolo, lying to the south-east of the Pangaeum. The road from Philippi across S. to the port of Neapolis [1] led across a narrow pass, significant in the Roman Civil War (autumn 42 BC; Plut. Brutus 38,2; Cass. Dio 47,35,3). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography TIR K 35,1 Philippi, 1993, 55.

Doiptunus

(58 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] Tib. Iulius D. (also Doiptounos or Douptounos; IPE 2,49). The name is not Greek and appears here for the first time. Probably appointed by Byzantium as administrator of the Bosporus after AD 620, since the inscription with Christian symbols also mentions a comes. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography V.F. Gajdukevič, Das Bosporanische Reich, 1971, 517.

Agrianes

(100 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Ἀγριᾶνες; Agriânes). Thracian or Paeonian tribe on the upper reaches of the  Strymon. As subjects of  Sitalces, they took part in the campaigns against  Perdiccas II in 429 BC (Thuc. 2,96); close relations with  Philippus II (FGH 115, Theopomp. F 145) and  Alexander III [4]; the latter was supported by their king  Langarus (Arr. Anab. 1,5,1-10). In Hellenistic times, they often served as mercenaries (Liv. 33,18; Pol. 2,65; 10,42). Ousted by the Dentheletae in the 2nd half of the 2nd cent. BC. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography Ch. Danov, Altthrakie…

Melas Kolpos

(47 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (‘Black Gulf’) Now the Gulf of Saros between the Thracian Chersonesus [1] and the mouth of the River Hebrus (Str. 7, fr. 52). From the south it could be controlled from Alopeconnesus, and from the north from Aenus. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)

Peucini, Peuci

(105 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Πευκῖνοι; Peukînoi). Important tribe of the Bastarnae (Str. 7,3,17; Plin. HN 4,100: Peucini Bastarnae; occasionally even used to refer to the Bastarnae as a whole, cf. Tac. Germ. 46; name probably a foreign expression derived from Peuce) in the north east of Dacia (Daci), east of the Troglodytae in the Danube delta (Ptol. 3,10,9). They shared characteristics with the Goti (Iord. Get. 91 for AD 248), and took part in the raid on the Aegean in AD 269, which Claudius [III 2] halted at Naissus. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography L. Schmidt, Geschichte der…

Panda

(37 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] [1] Unidentifiable river east of the Maiotis Unidentifiable river east of the Maiotis, three days' march from Tanais [2] (Tac. Ann. 12,16,2). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) [German version] [2] see Sondergötter see Sondergötter

Cadusii

(113 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Καδούσιοι; Kadoúsioi, Lat. Cadusii). Iranian group of nomadic tribes in the mountains between Media and the coast of the Caspian Sea, neighbours of the Anariaci and Albani (Str. 11,8,1). The Pantimati and Dareitai (Hdt. 3,92) possibly also belonged to the C. The  Achaemenids [2] had to battle against several revolts of the C.: in 408/7 BC, Artaxerxes II fought unsuccessfully (Xen. Hell. 2,1,13), but Artaxerxes III Ochus defeated and pacified them shortly after coming to power (359 B…

Macrones

(143 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Μάκρωνες; Mákrōnes). Mountain people, already mentioned by Hecat. FGrH 1 F 206, who belonged to the 19th tax district under Darius [1] (Hdt. 3,94; 7,78; mentioned here between the Tibareni and the Mossynoeci). According to Xen. (An. 4,7,24; 8,1-22), their region lay south-west of Trapezus. Modern Meryemana Deresi (righthand tributary of Maçka Dere) then formed the border river between M. and Scythae; the border fortress of the Colchi was located outside Cevrilik. Colchic influence…

Rhoxolani

(277 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Ῥωξολανοί/ Rhōxolanoí, Lat. Roxolani). Sarmatic tribe or group of tribes (Sarmatae; Str. 2,5,7, cf. 7,2,4; 7,3,17 in connection with Hipparchus [6], Eratosthenes [2]) that lived in the period approximately up to the time of Christ in the steppes between Tanais (Don) and Borysthenes (Dniepr) north of the Maeotis (Plin. HN 4,80; Ptol. 3,5,19; 24 f.). In the battle against Diophantus [3], general of Mithridates [6] VI, the R. fought under their king Tasius on the side of Palacus, king of the Scythians (113 BC?; Syll.3 709). In the 1st cent. AD, the R. settled on th…

Abritus

(178 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Thraci, Thracia | (Ἄβριττος; Ábrittos). Roman fortress and civilian settlement, 2 km east of the modern Razgrad, Bulgaria; pre-Roman Thracian settlement, probably the administrative centre of the strategia Rysiké under the last of the Thracian kings (IGBulg 743). From 45 BC part of  Moesia inferior; from no later than AD 78 encampment of auxilia (CIL XVI 22); in the 2nd cent. AD garrison of the cohors II Lucensium (CIL III 13727); strongly fortified in the 4th cent. AD. Inscriptions confirm a civilian settleme…

Astae

(213 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Ἀσταί; Astaí). Thracian tribe in south-east Thrace, between Apollonia [2] and  Salmydessus in the Strandža mountains, with the royal capital of  Bizye. Politically independent after the decline of Odrysian rule at the end of the 4th cent. BC, the A. increasingly gained in importance following the withdrawal of the Celts in 278 BC (Ps.-Scymn. 729; Pol. 13,10,10). They had good relations with the Greek colonies (IGBulg 312). The A. fought alongside the Maduateni, the  Caeni, and the…

Spartocus

(324 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
(Σπάρτοκος/ Spártokos). Name of a king from the Bosporanian dynasty of the Spartocids (Regnum Bosporanum). Contrary to earlier opinion he was of Iranian origin and not Thracian. [German version] [1] S. I. (438/7-433/2 BC; in Diod. Sic.12,31: written as Spartacus). Founder of the Spartocids dynasty. He removed the Archaeanactidae from power, probably through a coup and without changing the state’s structure as an hereditary tyranny. The culture remained purely Greek, which is in contradiction with the assumption that S. was the…
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